Metformin monotherapy

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    Metformin monotherapy


    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The present study assessed the therapeutic effect of exenatide and metformin as the initial therapy on overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). The prospective, nonrandomized, interventional study enrolled a total of 230 overweight or obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D who were administrated exenatide or metformin hydrochloride for 12 weeks. 224/230 patients, including 106 in the exenatide group and 118 in the metformin group, completed the 12-week treatment. Both exenatide and metformin significantly decreased the Hb A1c levels in overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D (all ) were independent influencing factors for the decrease in Hb A1c level. For an initial therapy in overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D, exenatide causes a better glycemic control than metformin. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality due to T2D-related complications [1]. Obesity is a major risk factor for T2D as it induces chronic inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance [2]. The impact on body weight is also considered a critical aspect of the clinical evaluation of hypoglycemic drugs. Several studies have confirmed that some hypoglycemic drugs like sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, or insulin tend to cause gain weight, while metformin leads to no change or mild decline in body weight [3]. Thus, metformin is frequently used as a first-choice therapy in overweight/obese T2D patients [3]. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist is a novel agent approved for treating T2D and has been demonstrated to induce significant weight loss in overweight/obese T2D patients [3–6]. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (Peer J) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have consistently identified dyslipidemia as an important risk factor for the development of macrovascular disease. The landmark United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that metformin therapy reduces cardiovascular events in overweight people with T2DM. This study investigates the effect of metformin monotherapy on serum lipid profile in statin-naïve individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, and whether the effect, if any, is dosage-related. This cohort study enrolled individuals exceeding 20 years of age, with recent onset T2DM, who received at least 12 months of metformin monotherapy and blood tests for serum lipid at 6-month intervals.

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    Maruthur and her associates conducted an update of a previous systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of metformin monotherapy and combination therapies including metformin with nonmetformin monotherapies in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with the novel combination of dual add-on with saxagliptin plus dapagliflozin to metformin compared with saxagliptin add-on alone or dapagliflozin add-on alone to metformin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes receiving metformin monotherapy. The first cohort comprised all eligible persons who initiated either metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy after 365 days with no exposure to medications for diabetes. The second cohort is a subset of the first and used propensity scores to match eligible metformin users to sulfonylurea users.

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of metformin monotherapy for 52 weeks, including 24 weeks of treatment and a 28-week extension period for evaluation of long-term safety, in 37 Japanese pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study design was an open-label, non-randomized, multicenter trial. The primary effectiveness endpoint was the changes from baseline to the final visit at 24 weeks in Hb A1c. The secondary endpoints were the rate for achieving the treatment goal, and the changes in glycated albumin, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and fasting serum lipids. Metformin was administrated at the dose of 500 mg/day up to a maximum of 2000 mg/day taken in two or three divided doses. The mean change of Hb A1c at the final visit at 24 weeks for 20 metformin-naïve patients (Group A) was − 0.66 ± 0.95% and that of 17 already-on metformin patients (Group B) was − 0.98 ± 1.62%. These figures proved the effectiveness of metformin as defined before the study. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disorder and its treatment with only metformin often does not provide optimum glycemic control. Addition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2) will improve the glycemic control in patients on metformin alone. In this study, an attempt is made to investigate the combined therapy of SGLT-2 with metformin in managing T2DM in terms of lowering Hb A1c and body weight and monotherapy using metformin alone in Hb A1c and body weight reduction. A systematic review of the randomized controlled trials has been carried out and Cochrane risk of bias tool was used for the quality assessment. Patient, Intervention, Comparison and Outcomes (PICO) technique is used to select the relevant articles to meet the objective. The studies used in this article are multicenter, double-blinded randomized controlled trials on SGLT2 inhibitors with methformin, there were a total of 3897 participants, with a range of 182 to 1186 individual study size were included. Studies showed that combined therapy were more effective in Hb A1c and body weight reduction as compared to monotherapy.

    Metformin monotherapy

    Metformin monotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus., Dual Add-on Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Poorly Controlled With.

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  7. Adequacy of Glycemic Control in Greek Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Metformin Monotherapy at the Maximum Tolerated Dose The.

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    In the multivariable analysis, only three of the 20 patient characteristics described in Table 1 were independent predictors of the odds of secondary failure of metformin monotherapy younger age, time between diagnosis and therapy, and A1C before therapy initiation. Metformin treatment has been the most recommended monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM for decades but is challenged by new antidiabetic drugs. This study conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials RCT comparing the efficacy of metformin and glimepiride in monotherapy of T2DM. Sep 7, 2017. Comparison of Exenatide and Metformin Monotherapy in. Both exenatide and metformin significantly decreased the HbA1c levels in.

     
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    Antibiotics are medications derived from naturally occurring chemicals produced by bacteria and molds to inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. Penicillin was discovered in 1929 by Alexander Fleming and its popular derivative amoxicillin remains effective for 80% of acute bacterial sinus infections and 99% of strep throat infections. Although 60% of episodes of acute bacterial sinusitis will resolve without treatment, antibiotics have been consistently demonstrated to shorten the course of illness and reduce the frequency of complications from sinusitis. Antibiotics are recommended for acute bacterial sinusitis lasting longer than 10 days, or getting worse after the first week. The most common symptoms include facial pain or pressure, nasal stuffiness or congestion, and thick, discolored nasal drainage. Antibiotics are also commonly prescribed for chronic sinusitis, although many cases of chronic sinusitis are not caused by bacteria. Studies have shown that 80% of patients with acute sinusitis will improve in a week on antibiotics, while 73% of patients treated with placebo will improve. Naujienos Azithromycin versus amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of acute. Augmentin vs Zithromax Comparison -
     
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